Antibiotics: Right Choice for Fighting Bacterial Infeсtions Successfully

Macrolides

Macrolides are a widely used family of antibiotics. They do not usually have serious toxicity and are effective in treating a wide range of bacterial infections in patients of any age.

Macrolides have excellent tissue penetration, achieve high intracellular concentrations and exhibit unique antibacterial properties. Depending on the mode of administration, the dose used, or the type of microorganism, macrolides exert:

  • bactericidal action * – causes the death of harmful microorganisms;
  • bacteriostatic action – prevents the growth and multiplication of bacteria.

* The effect of most antibacterial agents of this group is mainly bacteriostatic.

Macrolides grouped together because they have a similar mechanism of action. However, this class of antibiotics includes a variety of bioactive agents with a different spectrum of activity.

The most prescribed and often purchased are the following antibiotics of the macrolide family:

Erythromycin

  • Akne-mycin
  • E.E.S. 400
  • Eryc
  • Erygel
  • Eryped
  • Erythrocin
  • PCE

Clarithromycin

  • Biaxin
  • Clarie
  • Febzin
  • Hp-PAC
  • Klaricid
  • Mycifor

Azithromycin

  • AzaSite
  • Zithromax
  • Zmax

Fidaxomicin

  • Dificid
  • Dificlir

These subclasses of macrolide antibiotics exhibit antimicrobial activities against a wide range of pathogens in different milieu. Antibacterial spectrum of macrolides continues to be studied and replenished.

Depending on the type of macrolides, they are effective in treating diseases caused by the following pathogens:

Gram-positive

  • Clostridium difficile
  • Corynebacterium (diphtheria, minutissimum)
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Mycobacterial infections
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus (agalactiae, pneumoniae, pyogenes)

Gram-negative

  • Bordetella pertussis
  • Haemophilus (ducreyi, influenzae, parainfluenzae)
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Other

  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum

The listed and other bacteria are unicellular microorganisms capable of inhabiting an enormous diversity of environments, including in the human body. Bacterial infections may cause many negative consequences and diseases that are as diverse as pathogens.

Macrolides are used for mono or combination therapy of acute, chronic, mild, moderate or severe bacterial diseases of various types. They are also effective for the treatment of life-threatening infections.

The list of indications of macrolides includes urethral, ​​endocervical, rectal, respiratory, dermatological, ocular, and gastrointestinal infections, including but not limited to:

  • Acne vulgaris
  • Acute bacterial sinusitis
  • Acute otitis
  • Bacterial diarrhea
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Conjunctivitis of the newborn
  • Diphtheria
  • Erythrasma
  • Intestinal amebiasis
  • Legionnaires’ disease
  • Listeriosis
  • Mycobacterial infections
  • Genital ulcer disease in men
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Nongonococcal urethritis
  • Pertussis (whooping cough)
  • Pharyngitis/tonsillitis
  • Pneumonia of infancy
  • Syphilis
  • Urethritis and cervicitis

Macrolides were discovered more than 50 years ago, previously widely used in medical practice and today remain essential for the treatment of many types of bacterial diseases. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy depends on many factors, including:

  • selection of subclass of macrolides;
  • serum half-life of the active substance;
  • distribution of antibiotic in the body fluids and tissues.

Macrolides are produced in various dosage forms and have different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Depending on the severity and etiology of bacterial infection, macrolides can be used in the form of:

Oral formulations

  • tablets
  • capsules
  • granules

Parenteral formulations

  • topical gel
  • eye ointment
  • eye drops
  • solution for injections

Erythromycin was isolated in the 50s of last century and is the first macrolide introduced into clinical practice. Today it is produced in all of the above dosage forms. It is effective against a variety of pathogens including:

  • Pneumococci;
  • Viridians;
  • Streptococci;
  • Chlamydia;
  • Legionella.

Azithromycin and Clarithromycin are the second generation of macrolide antibiotics, intended for oral, injection, or topical use. Their activity spectrum is similar to Erythromycin, but there are some differences:

Azithromycin has enhanced gram-negative antibacterial activity.

Clarithromycin has enhanced gram-positive antibacterial activity.

Most of the indications of these macrolides are the same (for example, bronchitis, sinusitis, skin infections, pneumonia or otitis). The list of Clarithromycin indications also includes:

  • mycobacterial infections;
  • duodenal ulcer disease.

Fidaxomicin is a new member of the macrolide family; it appeared on sale in 2011. The main features of Fidaxomicin are as follows:

  • narrow spectrum of antimicrobial activity;
  • limited activity against normal gut flora;
  • ineffective in systemic infections.

Unlike most other macrolides that exert bacteriostatic action, Fidaxomicin has bactericidal properties. It is manufactured in the form of oral tablets and is prescribed to patients with clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

Macrolides can be sold under the international non-proprietary names, as well as under the brand names. You can buy a macrolide at pharmacies of your country and get one of the best antibacterial agents used in medical practice. If you are looking for the best prices for antibiotics, you can order macrolides on online pharmacies with home delivery.

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