Tetracyclines is a large family of antibacterial agents with favorable antimicrobial properties. Due to their high efficiency, affordable price, low toxicity and absence of serious side effects, they are widely used to treat infectious diseases in children and adults.
The first of the tetracyclines was isolated in the 40s of the last century. Other members of this class of antibiotics were discovered and went on sale in the second half of the 20th century. Interest in this group of antibiotics has not diminished for many decades. They have entered the new millennium and today retain important roles in human medicine.
Success of the early tetracyclines resulted in the development of new compounds with an expanded therapeutic utility. Today, the class of tetracycline includes several bioactive agents:
Tetracyclines are among the most inexpensive antibacterial agents. They are sold under their own non-proprietary names, as well as under the brand names.
A list of branded tetracyclines
Structural features and biological activity of tetracyclines are well established. Medications of this group are effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria and protozoan parasites.
Depending on the type of tetracyclines, they can be used to treat diseases caused by the following pathogens:
- Bacillus anthracis
- Enterococcus faecium
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Staphylococcus (aureus, pneumoniae, pyogenes)
- Alpha-hemolytic streptococci (viridans group)
- Shigella species
- Vibrio cholerae
- Brucella species
- Escherichia coli
- Campylobacter fetus
- Haemophilus (ducreyi, influenzae)
- Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
- Yersinia pestis
- Enterobacter aerogenes
- Francisella tularensis
- Acinetobacter species
- Bartonella bacilliformis
- Klebsiella (granulomatis, species)
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Ureaplasma urealyticum
- Chlamydia (psittaci, trachomatis, psittaci)
- Actinomyces species
- Borrelia recurrentis
- Entamoeba species
- Balantidium coli
- Plasmodium falciparum
- Bacteroides species
- Propionibacterium acnes
- Clostridium species
- Fusobacterium fusiforme
Pharmacokinetic properties and dosing regimens of tetracyclines are well studied. They have a quick onset of action and well penetrate into the body tissues. Tetracyclines are well tolerated by patients, including if used as a short-term or long-term antibiotic therapy.
The patient can get a prescription for tetracyclines if he has been diagnosed with a disease from the following list:
- Tick fevers
- Lyme disease
- Severe acne
- Relapsing fever
- Typhus fever
- Lymphogranuloma venereum
- Nongonococcal urethritis
- Psittacosis (ornithosis)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever
- Bacterial prostatitis
- Granuloma inguinale
- Intestinal amebiasis
Some of the tetracyclines are effective and well tolerated in the malaria prevention.
Recommended doses of tetracyclines are usually administered orally. If oral doses are not effective or topical treatment is needed, other dosage forms can be used.
Various pharmaceutical dosage forms of tetracyclines have different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Depending on the etiology and severity of bacterial infection, the following dosage forms can be used:
Doxycycline, Oxytetracycline and Minocycline can be administered orally and parenterally. Antibacterial agents including only Tetracycline are administered orally. The spectrum of action of all tetracyclines is similar and includes a large number of gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms.
Tetracyclines are the most common types of antibiotics. You can buy tetracyclines at the nearest pharmacy or order them online at any convenient time.